A turbocharger is a device designed to improve overall efficiency, increase performance and fit a vehicle’s engine. Most auto manufacturers use turbos for their vehicles. But what are the different types of turbos, the steps to install them, and how we at Diesel Components, Inc. can help? Read on for more:
Different Types of Turbo
We at Diesel Components, Inc. expertly deal with Turbocharger Repair. But since several different types of turbochargers are used within the automotive industry, it’s better to find out how they’re different.
Most people think of turbos as Single turbochargers. But keep in mind that we can attain completely different torque characteristics by differing the size of the elements within the turbo. Single-turbos, being a small turbo, provide a faster spool and better low-end power, while larger turbos can reach higher levels of top-end power.
Small turbos increase engine power and efficiency in a cost-effective way. They are gaining popularity because they allow smaller engines to get larger efficiency. They produce the same power with less weight as larger naturally-aspirated engines. However, they tend to work best within a narrow RPM range. Also, remember that drivers generally experience ‘turbo-lag’ until the turbo starts operating within its peak rev band.
- Sequential Turbo
As the name recommends, sequential-turbo adds a second turbocharger to an engine. We can do this by assigning a single turbo in V6 or V8 engines to work with each cylinder bank. Alternatively, you can use one smaller turbo for a larger turbo for higher RPMs at low RPMs. Twin sequential turbocharging is the second configuration that allows a wider operating RPM range and provides a better torque to reduce turbo lag (revs) and give power at high RPMs. However, having two turbos increases the associated costs and complexity.
- Twin-Scroll Turbo
Twin-scroll turbochargers need an exhaust manifold and divided-inlet turbine housing that pairs the right engine cylinders independently with a single scroll. For instance, in a four-cylinder engine with a firing order 1-3-4-2, cylinders 1 as well as 4 may feed to one turbo scroll. Whereas cylinders 2 and 3 might feed to a separate scroll. This layout offers a more organized delivery of exhaust gas energy to the turbo results, and it also helps in providing denser, purer air into each cylinder. More power is generated because more energy is sent to the exhaust turbine. Again, there is an additional cost for the complexities of a system due to exhaust manifolds, complicated turbine housings, and turbos.
- Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)
VGTs or Variable Geometry Turbocharger includes a ring of aerodynamically-shaped vanes in the turbine housing at the turbine inlet. These vanes rotate in turbos for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles to vary the gas swirl angle and the cross-sectional area. These internal vanes alter the turbo area-to-radius (A/R) ratio to match the engine’s RPM and peak performance. A low A/R ratio will allow the turbo to spool up by increasing exhaust gas velocity quickly at low RPM. The A/R ratio increases allowing increased airflow at higher revs. This low boost threshold reduces turbo lag and provides a wide and smooth torque band.
While VGTs are more typically used in diesel engines where exhaust gasses are at lower temperatures, VGTs are limited in petrol engine applications because of their cost and the need for components made from exotic materials.
- Variable Twin-Scroll Turbocharger (VTS)
As the name indicates, a Variable Twin-Scroll Turbocharger or VTS turbocharger combines the benefits of a twin-scroll turbo and a variable geometry turbo. With the help of a valve that redirects the exhaust airflow only to a single scroll, or by differing the amount the valve opens, it allows for the exhaust gasses to split to both scrolls. The design of the VTS turbocharger provides not only a cheap but a more robust alternative to VGT turbos. Therefore, it is a viable option for petrol engine applications.
- Electric Turbochargers
An electric turbocharger assists a normal turbocharger at lower engine speeds by eliminating turbo lag where a conventional turbo is not very efficient. We can add an electric motor that spins up the turbo’s compressor from the start through the lower revs until the power is high enough to work the engine from the exhaust volume. This approach makes turbo lag a thing of the past and, more importantly, effectively increases the RPM band where the turbo operates. So far, so good.
Electronic turbos are the answer to all the negative characteristics of conventional turbochargers; still, there are some disadvantages. The electric motor must be accommodated, powered, and cooled to prevent reliability issues, increasing its cost.
Step by Step Instructions to Install Different Types of Turbo
- Begin the turbo installation by removing old gasket material from the pipe and exhaust manifold. Clean the surfaces of the flange to avoid any damage.
- Remove all foam or plastic blanking plugs from the turbo.
- Position the turbo onto the engine block or manifold carefully using the correct new gasket or O ring and finally join the exhaust pipe again.
- Tighten all nuts & bolts to the right torque.
- Especially pay attention to oil feed and drain lines to clean and have no damage to ensure unrestricted oil flow.
- Install the oil drain line to the turbo and then pour new engine oil inside the oil inlet hole and fit the oil feed line of the turbocharger. Spin the compressor wheel a few times freely with your hand. Install inlet & outlet air hoses to the turbocharger compressor housing, ensuring airtight connection.
Have Turbocharger Repair for Different Types of Turbo in Mind? Contact Diesel Components!
Diesel Components, Inc. opened its doors as a family-owned, regional warehouse distributor and authorized repair facility of turbochargers for Garrett Turbo, Schweitzer, and many more in 1977. We do bench work only on diesel components, and we do not do any repairs on any vehicle.
At Diesel Components, Inc., our priority is to provide each customer with the highest possible quality. As a factory-authorized repair facility, rest assured, we always use the best quality parts and the latest repair techniques as we firmly believe in doing the job right the first time. Contact us to get your turbocharger today!